Geometry: Shapes, Lines, Angles, and Planes

Geometry Example For Kids

Geometry is a branch of maths which studies the shapes, positions, sizes and angles of figures in space. It helps students develop practical thinking and higher order reasoning skills.

A point is an exact location in a plane represented by an ordered pair of numbers, or coordinates. A line is a collection of points joined by ends that are not touching each other.

Shapes

Shapes are the basic building blocks of geometry. They are the parent structures for many other major topics in geometry such as area, perimeter and length.

There are two main kinds of shapes – open and closed. A closed shape has a starting point and an ending point and it is easy to trace a path back to those points. Examples of closed shapes include circles and ellipses.

A shape can be 2 dimensional (2D) or 3 dimensional (3D). The basic shapes in 2D are triangles, squares and rectangles.

A square is a quadrilateral with four equal sides and four right angles. A rectangle has the same side lengths but has a different top and bottom length. Triangles can be equilateral (all the angles are the same) or scalene (one pair of opposite acute and one pair of opposite obtuse angles). Other 2D shapes include kites, trapezoids and parallelograms.

Lines

In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object that has negligible width and depth. Euclid defined a line as a breadth less length. A line can be referred to by two points that lie on it or it may be defined as the set of all points C that are between A and B. A point that is not on a line is called a vertex.

A line can have a number of different relationships with other lines such as being parallel or intersecting. It can also have a skew. If a line is perpendicular to another line, the points at the intersection are called collinear.

A line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points and contains all the points that lie on it between the end points. A line segment has one direction and cannot change its direction. Two line segments are considered to be perpendicular if they are drawn such that their vertices are coincident.

Angles

Angles form a part of every shape and are an important concept in geometry. Kids must learn about the different types of angles and how they can be measured.

An angle is formed when two rays intersect at a point ( O ) called the vertex of the angle. The rays that form the angle are called arms of the angle. An angle is usually measured in degrees ( deg ) using a protractor.

There are five main types of angles: acute, right, obtuse and straight. These can be further classified based on their measurement and how they are rotated.

Besides, there are other interesting angles like supplementary and adjacent angles. These are also measured in degrees ( deg ) and can be categorized based on their relationships with each other. This further helps in constructing complex shapes. It is important to know about these angles because they are the basis for many geometrical concepts such as triangles and quadrilaterals.

Planes

Planes in geometry are flat two-dimensional surfaces that extend infinitely. They can appear as subspaces of some multidimensional space, like a room’s walls infinitely expanded, or they can be independent on their own, such as the coordinate plane in Euclidean geometry.

A plane can be straight or curved. Points that lie on the same plane are called coplanar. For example, points P, E, R and H are coplanar if they are all on the same plane and the distances between them are equal.

Geometry is also used to find the perimeter, area and volume of different shapes. This is done using formulas that take into account the length, breadth and height of the shape. These are the basic building blocks of geometry and must be understood correctly before moving on to more complex concepts. Points, lines and planes underpin every other concept in geometry. Without a proper understanding of these five axioms, geometry can seem difficult.

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